Project Management Process Groups

Project Management Process Groups can be understood using following diagram

Project Management Process Groups

Project Management Process Groups as defined in PMBOK

Project Management Process Groups

Initiating Process Group

Processes that are used to initiate a project are grouped in Initiation Group. In initiation, we conceptualize what exactly we need at the end of the project and identify stakeholders who can influence the project outcome.

This Project Management Process Group contains only two processes out of forty seven processes. This is a tiny process group but very important as initiation set the direction of the project. Therefore skipping it or fast tracking this stage could be dangerous. Every moment spend at this stage it precious. A small degree of deviation at initiation may takes you miles away from your goal at the end. Until you are very clear about reasons (business case) & objectives of your project and have sketched a high level approach to project planning, you should not move into planning stage.

Planning Process Group

From all Project Management Process Groups, Planning Process Group contains maximum number of processes. Out of 47 processes, planning alone has 24 processes that is 51%. Rest other 4 process groups share remaining 49%. If we consider project management a company, planning has the controlling stake. Therefore everything runs around planning in a project. It can easily be understood that projects which do not focus on project planning remain away from achieving their objectives. Various surveys have repeatedly showed that majority of the projects never achieve their objectives. They were challenged on time, cost & quality and failed to deliver benefits and values expected from them. Success and failure ratio may vary a bit in different surveys but one thing on which all survey unanimous agree that primary reason of failure was poor planning.

What is a plan? Fundamentally it is a list of time bound tasks if executed can turn concept (that we created in initiation) into reality (the product, outcome or service of the project). Planning is not just list of technical work we need to do in a project. It should contain each and every work to be done in project in order to make it a success. It contains, all stakeholders and how they can influence the project, a detailed scope of the work, a time bound meticulous schedule, cost estimate and expenditure schedule, quality improvement activities, resource utilization plan, a strong communication strategy to engage stakeholders and team, bill of material, procurement strategy, list of risks that can jeopardize project objectives and a response plan. A meticulous and comprehensive plan is like half way through.

Execution Processes Group

Out of 47 processes, This Project Management Process Group has just 8 processes (only 17%) while this is one of the longest stage and most of the money is spent here. You may observe, out of 8 processes, 5 processes are related to people – 3 processes for leading team, 1 for communication and 1 for stakeholder engagement. What is this indicating? For a project manager, managing people around i.e. your team members and other stakeholders is most important thing during execution stage and you have to be effective communicator to do so. It can be summarize like this. Team has a good amount of work to do during execution and project manager should act as enabler. He/she should look out proactively what kind of road blocks may come up that may impact effectiveness of team members & contribution of stakeholders and promptly work to remove them.

Execution process group may not contains many processes but this is the stage where most of the money allocated to a project is spent. Your team is at peak and if you are not effective on resource utilization, you probably burn the money without output.  If your team size is 10 people, you will have all 10 team members on board during execution. A single day delay during execution means, you carry all 10 people for another day i.e. 10 person days effort for every one day delay in execution.

Execution means doing the work as you have planned. How many times we really do this? Don’t we deviate often from what is there in the plan? Don’t we do activities that are not in the plan because we think, they are required? Don’t we skips the activities scheduled in the plan because now we think, we don’t need them? Actually we create problems for our self by doing so.

Execution means do the work as per plan, nothing else to be done and no activities should be skipped. That may be difficult to digest but let me explain it completely. During execution if you find any activity to be done to deliver the value you have committed and that is not there in the plan, don’t just do it. First schedule this activity in the plan and then do it. If you find an activity you scheduled in the plan but now it is not to be done due to changing situation on the ground, you should first make its duration zero and remove resource allocation in the plan. Therefore whenever there is a change due to different ground situation, you should first update the plan and then do according to the updated plan.

Meticulous plan and discipline execution is the key to success.

Monitoring and Controlling Process Group

This Project Management Process group contains 10 processes out of 47 i.e. 21%. In some time we will learn about knowledge areas. Knowledge areas represents 10 aspects of project management.  They are Integration, scope, time, cost, quality, human resource, communication, procurement, risk and stakeholders. Each knowledge area contains 1 to 6 planning processes but only one controlling processes to control that aspect of project management. Only integration has two controlling processes. It shows that amount of effort to be spent in controlling should be much less than planning. However if you don’t put enough efforts in planning, you may end up spending much more time in monitoring and controlling than required.

When we face problems in the project or observe significant variance, our tendency is to tighten the control but remember one thing – better you plan, less you need to control. So if you are facing issues and variance, it is the time we should look back on our plan and make corrections so that we can prevent future issues and variance instead of tightening the control.

A Monitoring and controlling process help in monitoring i.e. comparing actual with the plan to identify if there is any variance from the plan and then controlling it i.e. taking corrective measures to reduce or eliminate the variance. Monitoring & Controlling is not a stage in a project but it is done throughout the project from project start to project completion.

Closing Processes Group

Like initiation, this Project Management Process Group also contains only two processes but it is equally important. A proper closing helps us to understand our strengths and weakness and perform better in next project. We must do following before we close the project.

  1. Compile, document and share lesson learned
  2. Transition the project outcome to operation
  3. Archive all the artifacts of the project that can be searched later.

Lesson learned is a continuous process throughout the project. As and when you see variance, deviations and revisions in your project, there is an opportunity to document lesson learned so that we learn from our mistakes and omissions. When you get better than usual results, again there is an opportunity to document lesson learned so that we keep our best practices. When we reach to closure of the project, it is the time we should compile all our lesson learned in a document, present them to the team and also to other teams in the organizations so that others also learn from our good or no so good work.

We should handover outcome of the project to operation team with proper training and hand holding.

We should also archive all the artifacts of the project in a searchable manner. Should you get a project in future which is similar to this project, your archived artifacts will be of immense help. If you have archived them in a searchable manner, it will be easier for you to use them and perform even better in new project.

What is Project Management?

As per PMBOK, Project Management is the application of knowledge, skills, tools and techniques to project activities to meet the project requirements. Again, let’s understand what it really means?

Project Management Definition

What is Project Management?

Project Management

Let’s understand project management through an example of a necklace. Project Management is similar to a thread in a pearls necklace. It does not matter how good and how many pearls you have, until you have a thread, you cannot form a necklace. If a project is a necklace, its functions, disciplines, people, stakeholders etc. are its pearls and project management is the thread that binds all the pearls.  You cannot wear individual pearls until you have a thread. Similarly, you cannot deliver result of a project with individual functions, people and stakeholder until you integrate them through project management. You may not have wonderful pearls with you but if you bind the pearls you have in a beautiful manner, you can have a wonderful necklace. You may not have best out of best resources with you in a project but if you integrate them strategically through project management, you can have wonderful results. If wonderful pearls are not threaded properly, necklace may not look good. Your champion performer may not be able to give you excellent results in the absence of project management.

Project Management activities (processes) help a project manager to integrate all stakeholders, team members and technical activities in a project. Therefore it is important for a project manager to have sound understanding and experience of project management processes.

What is a Project?

What is a Project?

For a simple answer to this question “What is a project?” just look into PMBOK – A standard of Project Management by PMI. As per PMBOK, A Project is a temporary endeavor undertaken to create a unique product, service or result. Definition in itself may not be sufficient. Let’s understand what it really means?

Let's understand definition of a project given in PMBOK.

Let’s understand definition of a project given in PMBOK.

Temporary endeavor means, it has a definite start date and definite end date. Except eternal things, everything has a definite start however everything may not have a definite end. A project is always started with a definite end date to complete the project. You might have not planned in detailed, you may not be sure if you will finish the project by that date but until you promise a time line, you may not get the project.  This is one of primary challenges you face when you take up a project. You have committed a project completion date without detailed planning and now challenges with you is that you complete the project within that time line.

Uniqze product, service or result means, you will deliver a product or outcome of the project which is not delivered earlier. There is something new which makes this outcome unique. Let’s take two similar projects and test if they have same or unique outcome. Suppose you have a software product. Two customers ask you to implement the software product in their companies without any customization at all. That means you have to undertake two projects to implement exactly same product in the both the companies. Are these projects same?  They may execute same activities, may deliver same product to customers, they appear same in nature but they are still not same. These projects may have different team members, their location would be different and the environment would be different. As customers are different, their objectives to implement the product would be different, their reasons for executing the projects would be different, they may have different experience and stakeholders would be different. The primary things to check if the projects are different are to check their business case, objectives and purpose for which they have been undertaken.

Now question may arise, what is not project? Operations are not projects. Operations means maintenance, production, production support etc. These operations may have definite start date but may not have a date on which they will be completed, at least at the time of starting. Projects have a target date right at the beginning. Secondly operations may not produce unique outcome. Operations have regular activities and deliver same kind of products on a regular basis. If you have a water bottling plant, you may be producing several cartons of bottles every day. One can pick up any bottle from a carton and that will solve exactly same purpose and therefore they are not unique.

Paper Based Test (PBT) for PMP Exam in Pune in 2017

Schedule of Paper Based Test (PBT) for PMP Exam in 2017 for Pune, India

It is a good news for all PMP Aspirants who live in Pune or nearby area that PMI has scheduled one paper based test for PMP exam each month in 2017.

Pune has been a privilege city in this sense. It has got a special attention from PMI. There is no other city in India where PMI hosts PBT for PMP Exam every month. Other cities get this event once a while. I am not sure how many cities you may find in the world where PMI hosts paper based test every month.

A paper based test may save your travel to Mumbai and precious $150 (roughly Rs.10,000). It has some drawbacks also. PMI promises to give results in 4 to 6 weeks. In case of CBT (Computer Based Test) you get your result and report immediately. However most of the people who attempted PBT, got their results in 2 to 3 weeks.

Schedule of paper based test (PBT) for PMP Exam in Pune for 2017

Paper Based Test (PBT) for PMP Exam Schedule - Pune - 2017We do our best to keep the latest update here however PMI may change the schedule any time. Please refer PMI Website or Promatric website for latest schedule.


Last date of enrollment is the date before which you must get enrolled in the exam. To get enrolled in the exam, you should have your application approved.

So if you want to get enrolled in any of the above PBT exams, you should fill the application form, submit it and receive the approval before last date of enrollment. For example – If you want to give PMP exam on 10th June, 2017, you should have your application approved before 8th April, 2017.

Once you submit your application, PMI takes around a week to approve it. If your application is selected for audit, then consider around 20 to 30 days to complete audit formalities. In that case you may be able to take your paper based test only next month.

If you are in Pune, you have a great opportunity. Wish you all the best.

If you have any question or comments, you can use the comments section below. I will try my best to reply you at the earliest.

The Microsoft Project 2016 Product Suite

Microsoft Project 2016 Interface

Microsoft Project 2016 Product Suite

Microsoft Project 2016 Product Suite

Project Management is incomplete without a scheduler. Microsoft Project is one of the most popular scheduler used in the industry. MS Project is a suite of products to manage projects in an enterprise. Managing projects in an enterprise has three aspects.

  1. Preparing a schedule, tracking and reporting to stakeholders.
  2. Collaborating with project team and other stakeholders to share information & documents and receiving updates from them.
  3. Analyzing the performance of a portfolio. The third one is for senior managers who are responsible for a portfolio of projects.

To manager these three aspects, Microsoft Project 2016 Product Suite has five components.

  1. Microsoft Project 2016 Standard
  2. Microsoft Project 2016 Professional
  3. Microsoft Project 2016 Server
  4. Microsoft Project 2016 Project Web App
  5. Microsoft Project 2016 Portfolio Management

Please refer the figure.

Different components of the Microsoft Project 2016 Product Suite are used to manage different aspects of projects.

Project Standard and Project Professional address the first aspect of a project i.e. scheduling. Project Standard and Project Professional both are primarily made for project managers to prepare plans, track and report. Project Server and Project Web App together address the second aspect. They provide a platform for collaboration and information sharing among team members. Portfolio Management provides a platform for senior managers to create a portfolio of the projects and assess its performance against performance parameters addressing the third aspect.

Project Standard

Project Standard is a standalone software. The purpose of Project Standard is same as of Project Professional except that it cannot connect to Project Server and participate in Enterprise Project Management. Project Standard also does not have few features that are available in Project Professional. Some of the important features that are not available in Project Standard are Team Planner View, ability to connect to Project Server, ability to define generic resources, ability to make a task inactive, Resource Graph View, Custom Fields etc.

Project Professional

Project Professional is more capable product than Project Standard. First, Project Professional has some additional features explained above and second Project Managers can collaborate with team members using Project Professional through Project Server and Project Web Access as shown in the figure.

Project 2016 Server

Project Server is fundamentally a Share Point application and use SQL Server as its database. To install Project Server 2016, you should have Windows Server 2012 and higher, Share Point 2016 and SQL Server 2016.

Project Server provides a facility to make list of all resources in an enterprise. Normally it is done by Resource Manager who holds and owns resources in the enterprise. It also provides a platform for Project Managers to share their plan with assigned resources and receive tasks updates from them. It can also be used to track issues and risks, share project documents and have discussion with team. A simple system works like this…

Project Web App (PWA)

Project Web App (popularly known as PWA) is a web interface to Project Server. Project team can use it for all sort of work such as managing proposals, creating and updating project schedule, managing resources, entering time in timesheet, updating tasks status, generating reports and analyzing portfolio. Administrator can create a project site using PWA to be used for collaboration. Team can share documents on project site, can create issues and risks registers and collaborate, share minutes of meetings.\

Project 2016 Portfolio Management

Project Portfolio Management (popularly known as PPM) is a solution for a senior manager who is leading a portfolio of projects and programs. It provides a platform to a leader to define performance criteria parameters on which performance of the projects in portfolio is to be evaluated to achieve organization’s goals.

MS Project 2016 Portfolio Management

MS Project 2016 Portfolio Interface

A leader can define performance parameters (also called performance drivers) and analyze its portfolio against these parameters. He can understand which projects are performing well and which are not. If he has a resources constraint, he can take a decision which projects to shred off. For example a portfolio manager is running short of money to fund all his projects. He can analyze his portfolio against business goal and put a project on hold which is contributing least to the goals. Using Project Portfolio Management – A manager can create a portfolio of projects and programs, define performance drivers to state his strategy, optimize his portfolio under budget & other constraints and periodically analyze it to achieve goals.

Hope this information will help you to understand Microsoft Project 2016 Product Suite. For more information, please explore following links

Related articles:

  1. What is a project?
  2. What is project management
  3. What’s new in MS Project 2016
  4. Download a trial version of MS Project 2016 Professional

Dealing with Integrated Change Control – Part 4

How to handle situations at ground and questions in PMP® Exam related to integrated change control process.

Part – 4 – How to handle questions related to Integrated Change Control in PMP® Exam?

So far we have understood basic principles of Integrated Change Control, the Integrated Change Control Process and how to deal with them at work. Now let’s see how to handle questions on PMP® Exam. We will take some examples to understand how basic principles and change management process is applied on PMP® Question to tick the right answer:


Question 1:

You have just received a change from customer. Customer has analysed that it does not impact the schedule and easy to implement. What should you do first?

A. Request permission from project sponsor

B. Send the change to change control board for approval

C. Implement the change as soon as possible

D. Evaluate the impact on the project

Analysis of question 1:

Look at the basic principles and change management process to analyze the question. Basic principles says it is only project team that should do impact analysis. Customer analysis is not required and not sufficient. Irrespective of customer has done the analysis or not, project team must do impact analysis. Let’s analyze the options:

A- Request permission from project sponsor: You need permission from change control board to implement a change and not from sponsor.

B- Send the change to change control board for approval: If you look at the change management process, you can send the change request to change control board only after impact analysis. Customer impact analysis is neither valid not sufficient.

C- Implement the change as soon as possible: If you follow the process, you can implement a change request only after CCB approval.

D-Evaluate the impact on the project: You should evaluate the impact i.e. do impact analysis. So the answer is D. A question may arise how we can do impact analysis when a formal change request is not created and not gone through qualification test yet as per process. The answer is, these two steps are not available in the options. If either of them was available, I would have chosen it. We have to choose best out of available options.

So the answer is D.

Let’s take another question.

Question 2:

You are developing an application. In the last week, you have made the first delivery to your customer. Looking at the delivery, your customer has requested a change in the application and wants you to deliver it immediately. What is the BEST way for you to handle it?

A. Analyze the impact of the change on the project

B. Immediately ask your team to start work on the change and meanwhile you will do the impact analysis and take the approval from change control board

C. Create a formal change request

D. Call a team meeting to decide next step

Answer to question 2:

What do you do when customer ask you to urgently respond on the change? You should definitely try to fast track to address urgency but not at the cost of change management process. Tell to your customer that you and customer have agreed on a change management process and you cannot bypass it. You will try to expedite within the process.

Let’s analyze options:

A- Analyze the impact of the change on the project: You should analyze the impact of the change on the project but let us see if there is any option in B, C or D that comes before this step.

B- Immediately ask your team to start work on the change and meanwhile you will do the impact analysis and take the approval from change control board:  Asking your team to immediately start working on the change will be a total violation of change management process and also dangerous for you as you do not know the impact. By start working without understanding impact, you probably delay it instead of delivering it early.

C- Create a formal change request: Yes, you should first create a formal change request. This should be preferred over A as it comes first in the Integrated Change Control Process.

D- Call a team meeting to decide next step: Calling a team meeting to decide next step shows that you either do not have a change management process or you do not have inclination to follow it or you are unaware of it. If you have a change management process, next step is defined there, just follow it, there is no need to call a meeting.

So the answer is C as it is preferred over A.

Let’s take another examples

Question 3

Your project is half way. It is running on time and within budget. A team member comes to you and informs that he has added an extra features to the project that customer would like and there is no impact on time and cost. What should be your NEXT step after hearing this information?

A. Send this information to change control board to take a decision

B. Issue a change request and get it approved as soon as possible

C. Instruct the team member to remove the extra functionality

D. Present it to the customer as a value add

Answer to question 3:

Adding an extra feature which is not in the scope is called gold platting and not required at all. Team members should know that he/she is not expected to work on anything which is not part of the scope. It is a waste of time and energy. If you have time, apply energy to enhance quality of features within the scope. Often such things are done assuming customer will be delighted however we must understand that the extra feature was implemented without customer’s consent and therefore customer may or may not like it.

Let’s analyze options:

A- Send this information to change control board to take a decision: It is not right as this is not correct change control process. You should send the change request to CCB only when we have completed impact analysis.

B- Issue a change request and get it approved as soon as possible: Change request is to be issued before implementation of change and not after its implementation. It is violation of the process.

C- Instruct the team member to remove the extra functionality: You can instruct the team member to remove it as it is not in the scope.

D- Present it to the customer as a value add: Presenting it as value add is not only violation of Integrated Change Control Process but also risky as it was implemented without the knowledge of customer.

So the answer is C. Explain to your team member that he/she is not expected to work on features out of scope and ask him/her to remove it. Sometime it appears too hard on the team members but if you give such concession, you set an example and invite more such incidences. That may be difficult to control and you become selective in implementing the process. Better to stick to the process. Make team members aware of the process and sensitize them at regular interval instead of giving such concessions.

I hope this series on project change management will be of help to you. Should you have any question or suggestion or any comment to share, please click here and leave your question/suggestion/comment in the comment section. I look forward to hear from you.

Other parts of Dealing with Integrated Change Control

  1. Part – 1: Basic Principles
  2. Part – 2: The Integrated Change Control Process
  3. Part – 3: How to deal with change management
  4. Part – 4: How to handle questions related to change management in PMP® Exam (This post)


PMI, PMBOK and PMP are registered mark of Project Management Institute Inc. 

Dealing with Integrated Change Control – Part 3

How to handle situations at ground and questions in PMP® Exam related to integrated change control process.

Part – 3

In part 1 and part 2, I discussed about Basic Principles of Change Management and Integrated Change Control Process. In this part, I will discuss how to deal with changes at work based on basic principles and Integrated Change Control Process we defined.

How to deal with Integrated Change Control Process

How to deal with integrated change control at work

The main challenge in change management is dealing with pressure. We don’t face much problem when a team member suggest a change. Our obvious answer is NO most of the time. The issue comes when a senior stakeholder or specially customer requests a change. How to say no? Second factor is cost. Who will bear the cost of change? Third factor is time. How to implement it without extending project time line?

How to say no to a senior stakeholder or customer, asking for money for the change and conveying message that it will extend the time line are the things that make change management complex. Change control is not challenging if change is acceptable, money is either not required or easily available, time extension is okay or there is no major risk.

So the main issue in dealing with integrated change control is who bell the cat? If we have to deal with a person we don’t have authority, the basic principles we laid in the part 1 and a well defined process we laid in part 2 come to our rescue or become our strength.

If our fundamentals are strong and we analyze the situation based on principles then we put forth our analysis in the context of principles i.e. what is right in this situation. It not only makes us more convincing about our own act/suggestion but also makes it easy to explain and convince other parties. Also the suggestions do not go as our opinion but become system/principle driven. If we are able to convince the stakeholders about the change and its impact, they are more receptive to accept additional time and cost.

We may have strong fundamentals but not everyone. So here comes the process. We define an integrated change control process based on fundamentals covering all important ingredients of a good change management process and appropriate to our project environment. We create this process in the beginning itself and explain it to all stakeholders how we will handle changes in the project. It is easy to convince on a process in the beginning as change is not in front of them and every one want to show loyalty towards project’s objectives. We cannot suggest a process when change is already requested. It becomes reactive and not principles/fundamentals driven.

This is all easier said than done. It becomes more a stakeholder management than change management. Our communication and interpersonal skills become very important. Even when we agree up on process, our struggle continues. We have to continuously watch for changes throughout the project. Many times, changes just slip in. We must recognize them. We should educate our team members about change management and give them understanding of what is a change. Then we must take them through integrated change control process irrespective of their size and impact. We cannot be selective otherwise our all efforts will go in vain.

In the next part we will discuss how to deal with questions related with Change Management on PMP® Exam. Stay tuned…

Other parts of Dealing with Integrated Change Control

  1. Part – 1: Basic Principles
  2. Part – 2: The Integrated Change Control Process
  3. Part – 3: How to deal with change management (This post)
  4. Part – 4: How to handle questions related to change management in PMP® Exam


PMI, PMBOK and PMP are registered mark of Project Management Institute Inc. 

Dealing with Integrated Change Control – Part 2

How to handle situations at ground and questions in PMP® Exam related to integrated change control process.

Part – 2

The Integrated Change Control Process

Every project has its unique change management process to perform integrated change control but all such processes must have some fundamental and mandatory ingredients. A typical change management process looks like in the figure below

Project Change Management Process

Change Management Process for projects

Step1: A change request can be initiated by client, any team member or any of the stakeholders on the project. As project manager, you ensure that a formal change request is created.

Step 2: The first step for the project manager after creating a formal change request is to qualify the change to check if the change is a value add to the final product. Question arise, how do we check it? Here is a very simple test. Is the change in line with charter? If yes, it is a value-add change otherwise it is a nuisance and we should say no to it explaining the reason for the same. It is important to explain and convince the requester that the change is not in line with charter. If the change is in line with charter, we should welcome it as it will make the final product more meaningful to the customer and end user.

Step 3: Prepare an impact analysis. Analyze the impact of the change on scope, time, cost, quality, risk or any other aspect of the project. Document it and prepare an Impact analysis report with revised project timeline and cost.

Step 4: Submit this report to Change Control Board (CCB). Again the question arise, who is change control board? It a panel of stakeholders who can weigh benefits against impact and take decision in the favor of project’s objectives. We can have senior manager, project manager, management at customer side, client project manager, project team member etc. on CCB. For example, marketing head, R&D head & production head may form CCB for an in-house product development. Project manager and subject matter experts from vendor and customer sides can be on CCB for a typical project. It can be a single person also like customer, R&D Head etc. What we need to ensure is that the person or the CCB panel must have knowledge, skills and experience (Expert Judgment) to weigh benefits against the impact.

Step 5: Now it is on change control board to weigh benefits of the change against impact of the change. If benefits surpass impact of the change, he/she/they should approve the change otherwise reject it.

Step 6: Once change approved. No second thought any more, just go ahead and implement it.

We should remember a good change management process and performing integrated change control with discipline, will not only make final product more meaningful to customer and end user achieving high satisfaction but also help earning more revenue. A badly implemented change management process will do exactly opposite i.e. will lower the stakeholder satisfaction and lose the opportunities for additional revenue.

Other parts of Dealing with Integrated Change Control

  1. Part – 1: Basic Principles
  2. Part – 2: The Integrated Change Control Process (This post)
  3. Part – 3: How to deal with change management
  4. Part – 4: How to handle questions related to change management in PMP® Exam


PMI, PMBOK and PMP are registered mark of Project Management Institute Inc. 

Dealing with Integrated Change Control

How to handle situations at ground and questions in PMP® Exam related to integrated change control process.

Project Change Management is one of the main challenges for project managers on the ground and for the same reason, many people find it difficult to answer questions in PMP® Exam related to project change management process. In PMBOK® Guide it is explained as Integrated Change Control under Project Integration Management:

Part – 1

Basic Principles:

Let’s start with some fundamentals. Fundamentals are the foundation of good understanding of any subject and same applies to integrated change control. We must understand some basic principles of change management first before we start dealing with it:

  1. We should have a well-defined scope duly signed with customer or stakeholders
  2. We should have a well-defined project change management process for integrated change control.
  3. We should discuss and explain the change management process to customer/stakeholders in the beginning of the project.
  4. Do incorporate suggestions of customer and other stakeholders in defining the process. However once finalized, stick to it.
  5. All changes in the scope either suggested by customer/stakeholders or by project team must go through change management process irrespective of their size and impact on the project.
  6. Any change to change management process is also a change and must go through existing project change management process.
  7. Team members should not be allowed to work on anything beyond the scope of the project.
  8. Team members should be aware of project scope very well so that they can recognize the change.
  9. Team members should be explained the change management process, how to recognize a change and how to follow project change management process.
  10. The world is changing and therefore changes are inevitable.
  11. Project managers should welcome all value-add changes and deny all non-value-add changes.
  12. We must create a Change Control Board (CCB). We will define CCB further in Change Management Process.
  13. Team should work on a change only after it is approved by change control board
  14. Project team being expert and in-charge of project is the only stakeholder to analyze the impact of changes and prepare impact analysis.
  15. If any other stakeholder has done the analysis, we should thank him/her for his/her help but it is not sufficient. Project team must do impact analysis to understand the real impact.

Other parts of Dealing with Integrated Change Control

  1. Part – 1: Basic Principles (This post)
  2. Part – 2: The Integrated Change Control Process
  3. Part – 3: How to deal with change management
  4. Part – 4: How to handle questions related to change management in PMP® Exam


PMI, PMBOK and PMP are registered mark of Project Management Institute Inc. 

Individual project risk Vs Overall project risk

Individual project risk and overall project risk

Individual project risk and Overall project risk

Understanding difference between Individual project risk and overall project risk is important for project management professionals. It is especially important for people going to attempt PMP® Exam. Let’s look at the difference…

Individual project risk Vs Overall project risk

Individual project risks are the risks that we identify in the project. By looking at the impact assessment of these risks identified in project, you can rank them which one is more severe and which one is less. Accordingly you can assess whether a quantitative assessment is required. The process of risk management documented in PMBOK® Guide is to manage individual risks in project.

However it is also important for the project manager to understand the overall risk exposure of the project. If a program manager has 10 projects in his program, how he will assess which project is more risky and which one is less. Similarly you need to assess overall project risks to contribute in portfolio risk management. Therefore project managers should assess the overall project risk. Sometimes called risk profile or overall risk exposure of the project. Overall risk is not just sum of individual risks you have identified in the project but it also includes other sources of uncertainties.

Overall project risk is defined as “the effect of uncertainty on the project as a whole”. It is the joint effect of all risks in the project and other sources of uncertainty. It is stakeholders’ perception of the effect of various variables/uncertainties on the overall outcome of the project. The main objective of the overall risk assessment is to understand the degree of achieving the final project goal.

More on Project Risk Management

  1. Project Risk Management Workshop – Learn the art of managing uncertainties in the projects
  2. Risk Appetite Vs Risk Tolerance


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